"Directed evolution's revolution ... is bringing and will bring the greatest benefit to humankind", according to the statement by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. "We can now use evolution to make things that no human knows how to design", Arnold said in 2016. It was a way to find an unknown gene for a known protein. They used "bacteriophages", viruses that infect bacteria, to generate new antibodies - large proteins that are used by the immune system to neutralize harmful bacteria and viruses. And including antibodies - that's what Gregory Winter did. In 1994, for example, he developed antibodies that grab onto cancer cells.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first of these drugs in 2002. It has since gone on to become a blockbuster, with sales previous year of $18 billion. Winter was one of the leaders in using phage display to develop new biomolecules, including disease-blocking antibodies. Arnold is credited with half the prize, while Winter and Smith share the other half. "In the end one has to have a certain amount of luck". When she made mutant versions of that variant, she got an even better version.
"Frances Arnold being selected for a Nobel Prize is an inspiration to aspiring female biophysicists across the world", said Ro Kampman, Executive Director.
She tried to change an enzyme called subtilisin.
The award was for chemistry, but the work has wide applications throughout biology and engineering.
The Nobel Prize in Literature has been postponed because of the institution that chooses the laureate being embroiled in a sexual assault scandal.
4 a.m.in her hotel room in Dallas. I have to wrap my head around this. She received her graduate degree in chemical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1985.
Nordhaus, Romer win Nobel Economics Prize
Its supporters encourage governments and the private sector to foster innovation and incentives for increased creativity. In the 1970s, Nordhaus, already alarmed by the threat of global warming, began working on potential solutions.
Shooting attack near illegal settlement leaves 2 Israelis dead
More than 600,000 Jews live in about 140 settlements built since Israel's 1967 occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Police initially suspected that the shooting may have been a revenge attack on the man's employers, but army spokesperson Lt.
Gabriel Jesus unhappy he was not allowed to take Manchester City penalty
As for what it means for the standings, there is now a three-way tie for first with teams having records of 6-2-0. Liverpool registered three wins over Man City last season. "I want to keep doing it and keep everyone happy".
Marie Curie, Joliot-Curie's mother, shared half of the prize with her husband and fellow physicist Pierre Curie in 1911 for "the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".
The breakthrough came with the work of prizewinners Mr Mourou and Ms Strickland, he said.
"And hopefully in time it'll start to move forward at a faster rate, maybe", Ms Strickland said in a phone call with the academy after the prize announcement.
Why is the work important? The first woman to receive the honour was the Polish-born Marie-Curie in 1903, followed by the German-born Maria-Coeppert Mayer in 1963. "Her work is incredible".
Experts said the winners' discoveries also had an ecological benefit.
On Monday, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet gave this year's medicine award to cancer researchers James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo.
Strickland will be sharing the title with the United States researcher Arthur Ashkin and the French Gerard Mourou.
For the first time in decades, the Nobel lineup will not feature a literature award this year after a rift within the Swedish Academy over a rape scandal involving the husband of a board member left it unable to select a victor.
- The Nobel Peace Prize will be announced Friday in Norway.