It is the first time a whole Test match day has been lost to the weather at the home of cricket since May 2001, against Pakistan.
Anderson took five for 20 in 13.2 overs while Ravichandran Ashwin top-scored for India with 29.
Virat Kohli was trapped in an almighty mix-up as the Indian captain's blunder led to Cheteshwar Pujara being run out as India were skittled for 107 by England on day two of the second test at Lord's on Friday (Saturday NZ time).
Brief Scores: India 11/2 (Lokesh Rahul 8, Cheteshwar Pujara 1 not out; James Anderson 2-6) vs England.
Earlier, on the Day 2, English skipper Joe Root opted to bowl after winning the toss and invited India to bat first. It left Pujara stranded as Ollie Pope, presented with his Test cap by Alec Stewart in the morning, started his debut with a simple run out.
"I would be so disappointed if I had messed up today because they were ideal conditions to bowl in".
"I thought the wicket, because of the weather we can not control, it was to bat on", he said.
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Whatever the explanation, the lack of new faces compounds issues surrounding the United squad heading into the Premier League season.
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"When we bowl like that we would bowl most teams out in the world, we were that good".
"You do not get conditions like that much in England anymore with the ball doing that much in the air or off the pitch. When you build pressure all day no matter who you are it is hard", he said.
Left-arm spinner Kuldeep Yadav was brought in for seamer Umesh Yadav, joining Ashwin in the slow bowling department.
He was selected in the India U-19 squad for the Youth Test-series against Sri Lanka and he ended up claiming a wicket in his first over of that match.
Sunil Gavaskar believed that the Shikhar Dhawan was made scapegoat once again, despite scoring more runs than Murali Vijay.
Woakes, who reached his century off just 129 balls, is playing in place of Ben Stokes, who was forced to miss the second test as he stands trial in a court in Bristol charged with affray.