After England, Australia have played the most Test matches (812), followed by West Indies (535), India (523), South Africa (427), New Zealand (426), Pakistan (415), Sri Lanka (274), Bangladesh (108), Zimbabwe (105).
But the run out of Root by Kohli, who gave his England counterpart a colourful send-off, sparked a slump that saw England lose six wickets for just 67 runs.
England would have been dismissed had Sam Curran (24 not out) been caught behind after edging Mohammad Shami's penultimate ball of the day.
England took lunch at 83 for one, with Cook the only casualty for 13 to a superb turning delivery from Ravi Ashwin that dislodged his off-stump bail.
Ex-England spinner Phil Tufnell said: "I would put that up there in my top five sessions of Test cricket". "I suppose it's pretty disappointing for him personally not to go on and get a really big score", he said.
Teammates congratulate England's Sam Curran, without cap, for the dismissal of India's Lokesh Rahul, second left, during the second day of the first test cricket match between England and India at Edgbaston in Birmingham, England, Thursday, Aug. 2, 2018. I can't really remember it. Kohli proceeded to dominate the bowling with a variety of shots to the boundary. "It's a great learning curve".
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Until then England had seemed in control with Tykes pair Root and Jonny Bairstow fittingly marking Yorkshire Day by putting on 104 for the fourth wicket.
"At one stage, we were staring down the barrel and Virat's innings has narrowed down the gap between the two teams immensely", assistant coach Sanjay Bangar said at a press conference. "At one stage we were staring down the barrel, and the gap was huge, but because of his brilliance - and the commitment shown by the tail - it's still even stevens for both sides".
Virat Kohli was dropped on 21 and 51 by Dawid Malan and used the chances to produce a battling half-century. He has managed to better that tally in just the first innings of the series.
It was Kohli's send-off to Root that caught attention.
Undone by the skill and swing of James Anderson, Kohli endured a nightmare tour in 2014 and had a point to prove this time around, despite playing down the importance of the series on his career in his pre-match press conference.