Colombia had to win to be sure of their progress, but with Poland beating Japan 1-0 in Volgograd, African representation at the World Cup was ended as Senegal failed to secure the point they needed. It means there is no African country in the knockout rounds of the World Cup for the first time in 36 years.
Japan lost 1-0 to already-eliminated Poland in the group's other fixture. Neither team had red cards, while Japan had four yellow cards as opposed to Senegal's six, meaning the Samurai Blue edges out the Lions of Teranga.
The 2018 FIFA World Cup lives of Senegal and Colombia are on the line.
Colombia and Japan go on to play opponents from Group G - either England or Belgium, who play later Thursday.
Both Japan and Senegal had even goal differences and had scored four goals each, but Japan advanced as runners-up because they only picked up four yellow cards in the group stage, while Senegal had six. From the resultant corner, Ospina had to dive on the ball ahead of Mane after Mina's attempted clearance had deflected back towards goal.
The fair play ranking is being used as a tiebreaker for the first time at a World Cup.
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In the end, it's Colombia and Japan to the knockout stage in an open tournament full of surprises. Teammate Radamel Falcao patted him on the back sympathetically as he headed to the sideline.
The first flashpoint came soon after when Sanchez stretched in the box to thwart Mane, referee Milorad Mazic pointing to the spot but then overturning the decision when replays revealed a fine recovery tackle.
Carlos Sanchez returned to the Colombia line-up after suspension.
But from a precarious position, Mina propelled Colombia to the top of the group when he rose highest at a corner as Senegal reshuffled following a substitution. Sanchez received criticisms and a death threat, which is being investigated by Colombian authorities.
Rodriguez hasn't been at 100 per cent at any point in the tournament, but in the win over Poland, he was healthy enough to shine.